As a part of the macro-concept of smart city, one of the systems to be underlined is the energy intelligent-management system, especially smart grids, although we should not forget about gas sources and water service. The main purpose of smart grids consists of using efficiently and rationally the energy.
This kind of systems are based on the integration of the advances in electrical engineering and information technologies, which allows all the system areas (control, measurements, protections, etc.) to be part of a unique management system. These smart grids facilitate the efficient management of electricity and use computing technology to optimize the production and distribution of electricity in order to balance the supply and demand between producers and consumers.
The way we manage the electricity used by the consumers is dramatically changing due to fact that, thanks to renewable energies, consumers can also be producers and so redirect the energy retrieved to the electrical grid. This produces a bidirectional flow, which has to be managed by bidirectional digital technologies.